On November 16, 2010, UNESCO registered the Mediterranean Diet in the List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, defining it as a set of skills, knowledge, rituals, symbols and traditions, ranging from landscape to table. Sicily is the symbol region for the Mediterranean Diet, including typical dishes that characterize the eating habits and traditions of each city. On the other hand, globalization and changing lifestyles are driving us further and further away from the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the role of research is fundamental. The professors and researchers of the University of Messina, food chemists, food technologists, economists, biologists and veterinarians have been facing an ambitious challenge for years, including innovation and sustainability, tourism, certification, safety, sensory and nutritional quality, to defend and support this important heritage.